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Stock Market Glossary
A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P- R - S - T - V -W -Z
A
 


Accrued Revenues
Revenues that have been earned but have not been collected because payment is not due. A common example is earned, but uncollected rent   

Accumulated Depreciation
A contra-asset account subtracted from the original cost of the fixed asset resulting in the book value show on the balance sheet

Accumulation
This is when stock is being acquired in large quantities, specifically by institutions. The most basic method determining if a stock is under accumulation is looking for days when volume expands while the stock price moves up and volume contracts on days the price moves down.

Additional Paid-in Capital
Amount in excess of par value, when stock is sold for more than par value, the capital stock (paid-in Capital) account is credited with the par value of shares issued, and a separate account, additional pain-in Capital is credited with any amount paid in excess of par.

Annual Report
A corporation's annual statement of financial operations. Annual reports include balance sheet, income statement, auditor's report, and a description of the company's operations.

Assets
Resources having economic value that a company owns or controls with the expectation that they will provide future benefit.

Auditor's Report
Recorded in the annual report, the auditor's report tests to see whether a corporation's financial statements comply with local accounting standards.

Authorized Capital
The maximum number of shares that a corporation is legally permitted to issue, as specified in its articles of incorporation.

Average Volume
Average number of shares transacted during a period.

 

B
 

 


Bad Debts Expense 
The amount of debt that is deemed uncollectible.

Balance Sheet
A statement that shows the financial condition of a busies at particular date and it can be classified as per the following formal: Assets = Liabilities + Shareholder's Equity.

Beta
A relative measure of the systematic return of the stock to the overall market (All Shares index has value of 1). Stocks with betas greater 1 are highly volatile and have a positive correlation higher than the market. Betas less 1 are highly volatile and have a positive correlation which is lower than the market. Stocks with a negative beta move in the direction opposite to that of the market.

Ask / Bid
The ratio of total bid quantity to the total ask quantity

Blue chips
Stocks of well- established and financially sound companies that demonstrate a strong financial position.

Bonds Payable
Debt instruments that give holders the right to periodic interest as well as the right to recover the principal on a specific date. There are two types of bonds: Bonds issued by the government for public expenditure and bonds issued by the companies (corporate bonds).

Breakout
A chart pattern used to indicate a rise in a stock's price above its resistance level (such as its previous high price) or a drop below its support level (commonly the last lowest price).

Broker
An individual or firm licensed to execute buy and sell orders submitted by an investor.

Buy Order
Any order to buy a security.

 

C
 

 

Gains Capit
Refers to the gains from sales of capital assets such as stocks and bonds.  Also could refer to the gains from sales of land, buildings and equipment.

Cash &Cash Equivalents
Usually includes cash on hand, bank accounts, and marketable securities.

Cash Flow
Cash flow refers to the change during the period in cash. Cash flow includes cash receipts and payments related to operating, investing, and financing activities.

Confirmation
The occurrence of two or more indicators corresponding with one another and thereby corroborating the predicted trend.

Current Liabilities
Liabilities that mature in one year or one operating cycle.

 

D
 

 

Debt Ration
Total Liabilities divide by Total Assets.

Dow Theory
A description of market behavior, invented by Dow Theory, which divided price moves into three types of trends: major (lasting from months to years), intermediate (weeks to months) and minor (days to weeks). A primary corollary is that of mutual confirmation of moves by one average must be confirmed by a similar move in the other. This action provides the theory with the signals.

 

E
 

 

Earning Per Share – (EPS)
Net Income divide by Outstanding Shares. This is the signal most popular variable in dictating a share's price. EPS indicates the profitability of accompany. It is also a major component of the price -to-earnings valuation ration.

Electronic Trading
Trading which is conducted via electronically linked computers to the exchange, enabling brokers to carry out transactions electronically.

Equity Ration
Shareholders Equity divide by Total Assets.


Exponential Gap
A gap that occurs after the rabid rise in a stock's price begins to tail off. An exhaustion gap usually reflects falling demand for a particular stock.

 

F
 

 

Financial Analysis 
Analysis and interpretation of company's financial statements for evaluating performance.

Fixed Assets
Fixed Assets are assets that are used in the production or other assets or services, and that have a useful file longer that one accounting period.

Forecasting
The process of analyzing current and historical date to determine future trends.

Fund Category
The category that the fund belongs to (Equity, Bonds, etc…).

Fund currency
The base currency in which the fund's unit price is quoted.

Fund Description
Summary of fund objectives and investment outline as given by the fund manager.

Fund Name
The name of the institution that sponsors the fund followed by the fund name.

Fund Return
Return of the fund expressed as percentage in the unit price.

 

G
 

 

Gap
When the price of a stock moves very sharply up or down with no trading in between. Therefore, the chart shows a break between the prices with no line connecting.

General Reserves
Represents a reserve which is formed in accordance with the company's rules and regulations and is calculated as percentage of profit.

Goodwill
Goodwill means the present value of future earnings in excess of the earnings normally realized in the industry. The above –average earnings may arise from favorable customer relations, location, monopoly, manufacturing efficiency, and superior management.

Gross Profit
The excess of the net revenue from sales over the cost of sales is called gross profit from sales or gross margin. It is termed gross because operating expanses must be deducted from it: Net Sales- Cost of Sales = Gross Profit.

 

H
 

 

Hidden Quantity  
The quantity which the broker does not wish to reveal on the Market by Order Book.

High price
High Price traded during the period.

Holding Company
A parent corporation that owns enough voting stock in another corporation to control its board of directors and therefore, controls its policies and management.

 

I
 

 

Income Before Zakat
Represents the amount remaining from sales revenue after deducting  
costs and expenses.

Income from Operations        
The excess of gross profit on sales over total operating expenses is called income from operations, or operating income.

Inflation
The general increase in the level of prices for goods and serves and the decrease in purchasing power.

Inventory
Refers to inventory held for sale in the normal course of business or merchandise purchased for resale.

    

J
 

 

Japanese Candlesticks
The candlestick graph consists of a series of boxes, with lines extending up and down from the ends. The top and bottom of each higher, the box is filled with a color ; if the close value is higher, the box is empty. The ascending and descending lines indicate the high and low the values for that point.

k
 


 
key reversal day
A charting trend in which a stock price's high and low for the day exceed of the preceding day.

 

L
 

 

Last Close
The last price traded for a stock at the end of the previous trading session.

Last Trade
The most recent trade performed in a security.

Last Trade Volume
The amount of securities transacted in the last trade.

Liabilities
Legal debt or obligations to external parties.

Long Term Debt
Loans and financial obligations maturing in over one year.

Low Price
Lowest price traded during the period.

 

M
 

 

Market Price per Share
The current share's price in the market.

Minor Trend
The short- term direction of the price of an asset or market.

Momentum
The rate of acceleration of a security's price or volume.

Most Active
Most actively traded stocks during a specific period.

 

N
 

 

Non-current Liabilities
A company's liabilities due in more than one year or one operating cycle.

Number of Asks
The number of sell order in the order book of a specific stock.

Number of Bide
The number of buy order in the order book of a specific stock.

Number of Transactions
Number of executed buy and sell trades during a specific period.

 

O
 

 

Opening Price
The price at which a security first trades upon the opening of an exchange on a given trading day.

Other Expenses
Any other expense not related to the company's main activities.

Other Reserves
Optional or general or other reserves.

 

P  
 

  

Paid-in capital
Capital received from investors in exchange for stock.

Par Value
A legal value that is assigned to a security.

Peak
The highest price for a security within a specific time period.


Price Range
Highest and lowest market price of the share during a specific time period.

Purchase Price
The best price that an investor pays for a security.

 

R
 

 

Range
A stock 's low price and high piece for a particular trading period.

Retracement
A reversal in the movement of a stock's price, countering the prevailing trend.

 

S
 

 

Sector
Local sector to which the stock belongs.
 
Selling price
The best price the seller can sell at.

Spread
The difference between the bid and the ask price of a secueity or asset.

 

T
 

 

Time
The specific time at which the trade occurs.

Time Order
An order for which a specific date is defined before being cancelled.

Trading
A transaction involving the sale and purchase of a security.

Trough
The lowest point on a chart.

 

U
 

 

Underwriter
A company or other entity that administers the public and distribution of securities from a corporation or other issuing bodies. An underwriter word closely with the issuing body to determine the offering price of the securities, buys them from the issuer and sells them to investors via the underwriter's distribution network.

Unearned Revenues
Payments received for goods or services in advance of their delivery.

Unsystematic Risk
Risk that is specific to companies and their operations, sometimes referred to as specific risk. Usually displayed in the company's operational problems and inability to pay debts when due.

V
 

 

Volatility
A statistical measure of the tendency of a market or security to rise or fall sharply within a period of time.

Volume
The number of shares traded in a security or an entire market during a given period of time.

Volume Traded
The quantity of shares traded over a specific period of time.

Voting Right
The right of a stockholder to vote on matters of corporate policy as well as on who is to compose the board of directors.

 

W
 

 

Wedge
Similar to the triangle but with both converging trend lines, trending sharply in the same direction. An upward or downward slanting triangle (rising wedge, falling wedge). It can be either a continuation pattern or a reversal pattern.

Weighted Moving Average (WMA)
An average in which each quantity to be averaged is assigned a weight. These weightings determine the relative importance of each quantity on the average.

Whipsaw
A condition where an investor's security transaction is quickly followed by an opposite reaction. Sometimes referred to as being whipped.

 

Z
 


Zakat      
A charge on Saudi nationals and companies wholly owned by Saudi nationals. The rate of zakat is 2.5 % of capital employed, not invested in fixed assets, long-term in is investments and deferred costs, adjusted by net results of operation for the year.      

 

 

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